Infostealer, Keylogger, and Ransomware in One: Anubis Targets More than 250 Android Applications

By Marcel Feller

The Cofense Phishing Defense Center uncovered a phishing campaign that specifically targets users of Android devices that could result in compromise if unsigned Android applications are permitted on the device.

The campaign seeks to deliver Anubis, a particularly nasty piece of malware that was originally used for cyber espionage and retooled as a banking trojan. Anubis can completely hijack an Android mobile device, steal data, record phone calls, and even hold the device to ransom by encrypting the victim’s personal files. With mobile devices increasingly used in the corporate environment, thanks to the popularity of BYOD policies, this malware has the potential to cause serious harm, mostly to consumers, and businesses that allow the installation of unsigned applications.

Here’s how it works:

At first glance, the email shown in Figure 1 looks like any other phishing email that asks the user to download an invoice. However, this particular email downloads an Android Package Kit (APK), which is the common format used by Android to distribute and install applications. Let’s take a closer look at the suspicious file.

Figure 1 – Phishing Email

When the email link is opened from an Android device, an APK file (Fattura002873.apk), is downloaded. Upon opening the file, the user is asked to enable “Google Play Protect” as shown in Figure 2. However, this is not a genuine “Google Play Protect” screen; instead it gives the app all the permissions it needs while simultaneously disabling the actual Google Play Protect.

Figure 2 – Granting Permissions

The following permissions are granted to the app:

Figure 3 – Permissions Granted to App

A closer look at the code reveals the application gathers a list of installed applications to compare the results against a list of targeted applications (Figure 4). The malware mainly targets banking and financial applications, but also looks for popular shopping apps such as eBay or Amazon. A full list of targeted applications is included in the IOC section at the end of this post. Once an application has been identified, Anubis overlays the original application with a fake login page to capture the user’s credentials.

Figure 4 – Checking for installed apps

Based on a thorough analysis of the code, the most interesting technical capabilities include:

  • Capturing screenshots
  • Enabling or changing administration settings
  • Opening and visiting any URL
  • Disabling Play Protect
  • Recording audio
  • Making phone calls
  • Stealing the contact list
  • Controlling the device via VNC
  • Sending, receiving and deleting SMS
  • Locking the device
  • Encrypting files on the device and external drives
  • Searching for files
  • Retrieving the GPS location
  • Capturing remote control commands from Twitter and Telegram
  • Pushing overlays
  • Reading the device ID

The malware includes a keylogger that works in every app installed on the Android device. However, the keylogger needs to be specifically enabled by a command sent from the C2 server. The keylogger can track three different events (Figure 5):

 

TYPE_VIEW_CLICKED Represents the event of clicking on a View-like Button, CompoundButton, etc.
TYPE_VIEW_FOCUSED Represents the event of setting input focus of a View.
TYPE_VIEW_TEXT_CHANGED Represents the event of changing the text of an EditText.

Figure 5 – Keylogger component

Figure 6 shows one of the most noteworthy functions of Anubis: its ransomware module. The malware searches both internal and external storage and encrypts them using RC4. It adds the file extension .AnubisCrypt to each encrypted file and sends it to the C2.

Figure 6 – Ransomware component

Anubis has been known to utilize Twitter or Telegram to retrieve the C2 address and this sample is no exception (Figure 7).

Figure 7 – C2

As seen in Figure 8, this version of Anubis is built to run on several iterations of the Android operating system, dating back to version 4.0.3, which was released in 2012.

Figure 8 – Android requirements

Android malware has been around for many years and will be with us for the foreseeable future. Users who have configured their Android mobile device to receive work-related emails and allow installation of unsigned applications face the most risk of compromise. APK files will not natively open in an environment other than an Android device.  With the increased use of Android phones in business environments, it is important to defend against these threats by ensuring devices are kept current with the latest updates. Limiting app installations on corporate devices, as well as ensuring that applications are created by trusted developers on official marketplaces, can help in reducing the risk of infection as well.

Indicators of Compromise

File Name: Fattura002873.apk

MD5: c027ec0f9855529877bc0d57453c5e86

SHA256: c38c675a4342052a18e969e839cce797fef842b9d53032882966a3731ced0a70

File Size: 575,236 bytes (561K)

hXXp://g28zjbmuc[.]pathareshubhmangalkaryalay[.]com
hXXp://73mw001b0[.]pragatienterprises[.]in[.]net/
hXXp://hrlny7si9[.]pathareshubhmangalkaryalay[.]com/
hXXp://w0puz47[.]arozasehijos[.]cl/
hXXp://hovermop[.]com/Fattura002873[.]apk
hXXps://twitter[.]com/qweqweqwe
hXXp://ktosdelaetskrintotpidor[.]com
hXXp://sositehuypidarasi[.]com
hXXp://cdnjs[.]su/fafa[.]php?f=
hXXp://cdnjs[.]su/o1o/a1[.]php
hXXp://cdnjs[.]su/o1o/a10[.]php
hXXp://cdnjs[.]su/o1o/a11[.]php
hXXp://cdnjs[.]su/o1o/a12[.]php
hXXp://cdnjs[.]su/o1o/a13[.]php
hXXp://cdnjs[.]su/o1o/a14[.]php
hXXp://cdnjs[.]su/o1o/a15[.]php
hXXp://cdnjs[.]su/o1o/a16[.]php
hXXp://cdnjs[.]su/o1o/a2[.]php
hXXp://cdnjs[.]su/o1o/a3[.]php
hXXp://cdnjs[.]su/o1o/a4[.]php
hXXp://cdnjs[.]su/o1o/a5[.]php
hXXp://cdnjs[.]su/o1o/a6[.]php
hXXp://cdnjs[.]su/o1o/a7[.]php
hXXp://cdnjs[.]su/o1o/a8[.]php
hXXp://cdnjs[.]su/o1o/a9[.]php

at.spardat.bcrmobile
at.spardat.netbanking
com.bankaustria.android.olb
com.bmo.mobile
com.cibc.android.mobi
com.rbc.mobile.android
com.scotiabank.mobile
com.td
cz.airbank.android
eu.inmite.prj.kb.mobilbank
com.bankinter.launcher
com.kutxabank.android
com.rsi
com.tecnocom.cajalaboral
es.bancopopular.nbmpopular
es.evobanco.bancamovil
es.lacaixa.mobile.android.newwapicon
com.dbs.hk.dbsmbanking
com.FubonMobileClient
com.hangseng.rbmobile
com.MobileTreeApp
com.mtel.androidbea
com.scb.breezebanking.hk
hk.com.hsbc.hsbchkmobilebanking
com.aff.otpdirekt
com.ideomobile.hapoalim
com.infrasofttech.indianBank
com.mobikwik_new
com.oxigen.oxigenwallet
jp.co.aeonbank.android.passbook
jp.co.netbk
jp.co.rakuten_bank.rakutenbank
jp.co.sevenbank.AppPassbook
jp.co.smbc.direct
jp.mufg.bk.applisp.app
com.barclays.ke.mobile.android.ui
nz.co.anz.android.mobilebanking
nz.co.asb.asbmobile
nz.co.bnz.droidbanking
nz.co.kiwibank.mobile
com.getingroup.mobilebanking
eu.eleader.mobilebanking.pekao.firm
eu.eleader.mobilebanking.raiffeisen
pl.bzwbk.bzwbk24
pl.ipko.mobile
pl.mbank
alior.bankingapp.android
com.comarch.mobile.banking.bgzbnpparibas.biznes
com.comarch.security.mobilebanking
com.empik.empikapp
com.finanteq.finance.ca
com.orangefinansek
eu.eleader.mobilebanking.invest
pl.aliorbank.aib
pl.allegro
pl.bosbank.mobile
pl.bph
pl.bps.bankowoscmobilna
pl.bzwbk.ibiznes24
pl.bzwbk.mobile.tab.bzwbk24
pl.ceneo
pl.com.rossmann.centauros
pl.fmbank.smart
pl.ideabank.mobilebanking
pl.ing.mojeing
pl.millennium.corpApp
pl.orange.mojeorange
pl.pkobp.iko
pl.pkobp.ipkobiznes
com.kuveytturk.mobil
com.magiclick.odeabank
com.mobillium.papara
com.pozitron.albarakaturk
com.teb
com.tmob.denizbank
com.vakifbank.mobilel
tr.com.sekerbilisim.mbank
wit.android.bcpBankingApp.millenniumPL
com.advantage.RaiffeisenBank
hr.asseco.android.jimba.mUCI.ro
may.maybank.android
ro.btrl.mobile
com.amazon.mShop.android.shopping
ru.sberbankmobile
ru.alfabank.mobile.android
ru.mw
com.idamob.tinkoff.android
com.ebay.mobile
ru.vtb24.mobilebanking.android
com.akbank.android.apps.akbank_direkt
com.ykb.android
com.softtech.iscek
com.finansbank.mobile.cepsube
com.garanti.cepsubesi
com.tmobtech.halkbank
com.ziraat.ziraatmobil
de.comdirect.android
de.commerzbanking.mobil
de.consorsbank
com.db.mm.deutschebank
de.dkb.portalapp
com.ing.diba.mbbr2
de.postbank.finanzassistent
mobile.santander.de
de.fiducia.smartphone.android.banking.vr
fr.creditagricole.androidapp
fr.axa.monaxa
fr.banquepopulaire.cyberplus
net.bnpparibas.mescomptes
com.boursorama.android.clients
com.caisseepargne.android.mobilebanking
fr.lcl.android.customerarea
com.paypal.android.p2pmobile
com.konylabs.capitalone
com.chase.sig.android
com.infonow.bofa
com.wf.wellsfargomobile
uk.co.bankofscotland.businessbank
com.rbs.mobile.android.natwestoffshore
uk.co.santander.santanderUK
com.usbank.mobilebanking
com.usaa.mobile.android.usaa
com.suntrust.mobilebanking
com.moneybookers.skrillpayments.neteller
com.clairmail.fth
com.ifs.banking.fiid4202
com.rbs.mobile.android.ubr
com.htsu.hsbcpersonalbanking
com.grppl.android.shell.halifax
com.grppl.android.shell.CMBlloydsTSB73
com.barclays.android.barclaysmobilebanking
sk.sporoapps.accounts
com.cleverlance.csas.servis24
com.unionbank.ecommerce.mobile.android
com.ing.mobile
com.snapwork.hdfc
com.sbi.SBIFreedomPlus
hdfcbank.hdfcquickbank
com.csam.icici.bank.imobile
in.co.bankofbaroda.mpassbook
com.axis.mobile
cz.csob.smartbanking
cz.sberbankcz
org.westpac.bank,nz.co.westpac
au.com.suncorp.SuncorpBank
org.stgeorge.bank
org.banksa.bank
au.com.newcastlepermanent
au.com.nab.mobile
au.com.mebank.banking
au.com.ingdirect.android
com.imb.banking2
com.commbank.netbank
com.citibank.mobile.au
com.fusion.ATMLocator
org.bom.bank
au.com.cua.mb
com.anz.android.gomoney
com.bendigobank.mobile
com.bbva.bbvacontigo
com.bbva.netcash
au.com.bankwest.mobile
com.cm_prod.bad
mobi.societegenerale.mobile.lappli
at.bawag.mbanking
com.pozitron.iscep
com.bankofqueensland.boq
com.starfinanz.smob.android.sfinanzstatus
fr.laposte.lapostemobile
com.starfinanz.smob.android.sbanking
at.easybank.mbanking
com.palatine.android.mobilebanking.prod
at.volksbank.volksbankmobile
com.isis_papyrus.raiffeisen_pay_eyewdg
es.cm.android
com.jiffyondemand.user
com.latuabancaperandroid
com.latuabanca_tabperandroid
com.lynxspa.bancopopolare
com.unicredit
it.bnl.apps.banking
it.bnl.apps.enterprise.bnlpay
it.bpc.proconl.mbplus
it.copergmps.rt.pf.android.sp.bmps
it.gruppocariparma.nowbanking
it.ingdirect.app
it.nogood.container
it.popso.SCRIGNOapp
posteitaliane.posteapp.apppostepay
com.abnamro.nl.mobile.payments
com.triodos.bankingnl
nl.asnbank.asnbankieren
nl.snsbank.mobielbetalen
com.btcturk
com.ingbanktr.ingmobil
finansbank.enpara
tr.com.hsbc.hsbcturkey
com.att.myWireless
com.vzw.hss.myverizon
aib.ibank.android
com.bbnt
com.csg.cs.dnmbs
com.discoverfinancial.mobile
com.eastwest.mobile
com.fi6256.godough
com.fi6543.godough
com.fi6665.godough
com.fi9228.godough
com.fi9908.godough
com.ifs.banking.fiid1369
com.ifs.mobilebanking.fiid3919
com.jackhenry.rockvillebankct
com.jackhenry.washingtontrustbankwa
com.jpm.sig.android
com.sterling.onepay
com.svb.mobilebanking
org.usemployees.mobile
pinacleMobileiPhoneApp.android
com.fuib.android.spot.online
com.ukrsibbank.client.android
ru.alfabank.mobile.ua.android
ua.aval.dbo.client.android
ua.com.cs.ifobs.mobile.android.otp
ua.com.cs.ifobs.mobile.android.pivd
ua.oschadbank.online
ua.privatbank.ap24
com.Plus500
eu.unicreditgroup.hvbapptan
com.targo_prod.bad
com.db.pwcc.dbmobile
com.db.mm.norisbank
com.bitmarket.trader
com.plunien.poloniex
com.mycelium.wallet
com.bitfinex.bfxapp
com.binance.dev
com.binance.odapplications
com.blockfolio.blockfolio
com.crypter.cryptocyrrency
io.getdelta.android
com.edsoftapps.mycoinsvalue
com.coin.profit
com.mal.saul.coinmarketcap
com.tnx.apps.coinportfolio
com.coinbase.android
de.schildbach.wallet
piuk.blockchain.android
info.blockchain.merchant
com.jackpf.blockchainsearch
com.unocoin.unocoinwallet
com.unocoin.unocoinmerchantPoS
com.thunkable.android.santoshmehta364.UNOCOIN_LIVE
wos.com.zebpay
com.localbitcoinsmbapp
com.thunkable.android.manirana54.LocalBitCoins
com.localbitcoins.exchange
com.coins.bit.local
com.coins.ful.bit
com.jamalabbasii1998.localbitcoin
zebpay.Application
com.bitcoin.ss.zebpayindia
com.kryptokit.jaxx

HOW COFENSE CAN HELP

Every day, the Cofense Phishing Defense Center analyzes phishing emails with malware payloads found in protected email environments. 100% of the threats found by the Cofense PDC were identified by the end user. 0% were stopped by technology.

Condition users to be resilient to evolving phishing attacks with Cofense PhishMe and remove the blind spot with Cofense Reporter. Cofense PhishMe offers a simulation template, “Electricity Bill Invoice – Anubis – Italian,” to educate users on the phishing tactic described in this blog.

Quickly turn user reported emails into actionable intelligence with Cofense Triage. Reduce exposure time by rapidly quarantining threats with Cofense Vision.

Easily consume phishing-specific threat intelligence to proactively defend your organization against evolving threats with Cofense Intelligence. Cofense Intelligence customers received further information about this threat in Active Threat Report (ATR) 33675 and the YARA Rule PM_Intel_Anubis_33675.

Thanks to our unique perspective, no one knows more about REAL phishing threats than Cofense. To understand them better, read the 2019 Phishing Threat & Malware Review.

The Cofense® and PhishMe® names and logos, as well as any other Cofense product or service names or logos displayed on this blog are registered trademarks or trademarks of Cofense Inc. All third-party trademarks referenced by Cofense whether in logo form, name form or product form, or otherwise, remain the property of their respective holders, and use of these trademarks in no way indicates any relationship between Cofense and the holders of the trademarks. Any observations contained in this blog regarding circumvention of end point protections are based on observations at a point in time based on a specific set of system configurations. Subsequent updates or different configurations may be effective at stopping these or similar threats.

Organization of Post-Soviet States Spoofed in Phishing Email

By Julie Hall and Dylan Duncan,

Cofense IntelligenceTM has detected a Russian language credential phishing campaign, spoofing a well-known financial organization, that delivers a malicious PDF to end users. The phishing campaign spoofs the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), a legitimate post-Soviet nations organization portal, and claims to offer ruble compensation. The is delivered with a blank phishing email containing a PDF file that includes a redirect link to a Russian language phishing site. Cofense has observed the phish making its way through Microsoft’s EOP Secure Email Gateway and it may have bypassed others.

Notably, all domains that Cofense Intelligence has recorded in this campaign contain valid certificates and were recently registered between November 19th and December 1st, 2019. Figure 1 presents the phishing email that contains no context, just a PDF attachment.

Figure 1: Phishing Email

Using a simplistic and blank email generally results in only curious, unsuspecting recipients being automatically directed to the phishing portal. However, in this phishing scenario, once the PDF is opened, the recipient is presented with an image and a link, as shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2: PDF File

Clicking the hyperlink, which requests the end user to review a document, redirects to a phishing site, as shown in Figure 3. The phishing attack consists of multiple steps. The spoofed financial service claims to offer eligible citizens monetary compensation; however, they are only given a limited time frame to register their claim. To claim the compensation, visitors must submit a bank card number and a Voila (cryptocurrency token). After providing the information, users are prompted to pay a randomly generated fee before receiving the compensation.

Figure 3: Landing Page of Phishing Attack

As a false sense of authenticity, every 30 to 60 seconds the site generates one of 10 pop-ups claiming that a user has received compensation (see Figure 4). Also, the site accepts all inputs and does not conduct any validation; therefore, all visitors are at risk of navigating their way through all of the steps. This combination of techniques—the limited time frame, spoofing of a legitimate organization, a large compensation offer, and the registered domains with valid certifications—create a sense of legitimacy and builds excitement and urgency for recipients. These Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (TTPs) cloud judgment and lower the victim’s guard.

Figure 4: Received Compensation Pop-Up

The domains contain an open directory with an accessible phishing kit, FKG.zip. The kit contains multiple HTML, JavaScript, and JavaScript Object Notation files. The .html files link to the web pages of the phishing attack while the JS and JSON files control the functionality of the phish.

In the file upssels.js, the domain clickpay24[.]tv is used as an API to accept the direct payments from the users. After completing each step of the phish, recipients are redirected to a payment site generated by clickpay24. The generated URLs follow the path az-payout.com[.]com/buy/<16 Integers> with random integers.

Preventing certain email-borne intrusions involves security awareness as the first line of defense. Alongside automated anti-phishing tools, educating company personnel on new phishing trends is the best way of countering a campaign such as this.

Table 1: Domains associated with the campaign

Domain Registration Date
h-formpay-a[.]top November 19, 2019
x-a[.]top December 1, 2019
Luckyclick[.]best November 24, 2019
m-f1[.]top December 1, 2019
c3p-cl[.]club November 29, 2019
o-k-f.aadfk[.]top November 28, 2019
m-go[.]top November 11, 2019

 

Every day, the Cofense Phishing Defense Center analyzes phishing emails that bypassed email gateways. 100% of the threats found by the Cofense PDC were identified by the end user. 0% were stopped by technology.

Condition users to be resilient to evolving phishing attacks with Cofense PhishMe and remove the blind spot with Cofense Reporter.

Quickly turn user reported emails into actionable intelligence with Cofense Triage. Reduce exposure time by rapidly quarantining threats with Cofense Vision.

Easily consume phishing-specific threat intelligence to proactively defend your organization against evolving threats with Cofense Intelligence. Cofense Intelligence customers received further information about this threat in Active Threat Report (ATR) 34008.

Thanks to our unique perspective, no one knows more about REAL phishing threats than Cofense. To understand them better, read the 2019 Phishing Threat & Malware Review.

 

All third-party trademarks referenced by Cofense whether in logo form, name form or product form, or otherwise, remain the property of their respective holders, and use of these trademarks in no way indicates any relationship between Cofense and the holders of the trademarks. Any observations contained in this blog regarding circumvention of end point protections are based on observations at a point in time based on a specific set of system configurations. Subsequent updates or different configurations may be effective at stopping these or similar threats.

Emotet Modifies Command & Control URI Structure and Brings Back Link-based Emails

By Noah Mizell, Cofense Phishing Defense Center

Emotet has been busy wrapping up the year with some minor tweaks to their client code and the reintroduction of some tactics that have worked well for them in the past. The botnet that began its life as a banking trojan in 2014 has proven to be a formidable threat to organizations around the world and shows no signs of stopping. Before we look at their recent changes, let’s begin with a quick review of some of the notable updates we have observed this year:

  • January 13, 2019 – The Emotet botnet reemerges from vacation to begin its first campaign of the year.
  • January 28, 2019 – Experimentation with Qakbot as a payload.
  • March 14, 2019 – The client code is changed to utilize a wordlist to generate random paths when checking into the Command & Control (C2) and now uses the POST method instead of GET. The use of JavaScript attachments is noted as well.
  • April 9, 2019 – The botnet operators begin using the emails that were stolen starting in the last part of their 2018 campaign. The use of stolen content provides the ability to create spear-phishing like emails on a scale never seen before.
  • May 31, 2019 – Emotet goes on summer vacation shutting down a large part of its infrastructure.
  • Sep 3, 2019 – C2 begins to come back online.
  • Sep 16, 2019 – Spamming operations resume. Link and PDF attachment based emails are very limited. The vast majority of their campaigns are macro document-based. Heavy use of the reply-chain (stolen email) tactic is observed.
  • Large deployments of TrickBot and Dreambot are used as secondary infections throughout the year.
  • The term “Triple Threat” is created to note the high incidence of Emotet -> TrickBot -> Ryuk infections seen in the wild, leading to massive ransomware payments and a great deal of lost time and money for many government and private organizations.

Starting on November 27th, we noticed a change in the way the Emotet client code was checking into the C2 servers. Gone are the random paths utilizing the word list (figure 1) that was seen in the past.

Figure 1: URI structure introduced in early 2019

Figure 2: The new URI structure seen as of Nov. 27

The clients are now adding a path that, at first glance, appears to be a random string with a minimum length of four characters.  A slightly deeper investigation into this traffic shows the path is actually the key from the key/value pair in the posted form data.  This change is odd, as it does not actually alter the check-in data in any meaningful way and appears instead to be more cosmetic in nature. This leads us to believe that it may have been a rudimentary attempt at identifying researchers who are running emulation code alone, as their check-in structure would not have dynamically changed when the code base was updated.

Figure 3: Example Emotet delivery email

Another noted change was the reintroduction of link-based email templates. We have seen Emotet emails use links with great success in the past. For unknown reasons, the threat actors did not seem to use them when coming back from summer vacation. In all likelihood, they are using them now to maximize their victim count before breaking again for the winter holidays.

We have included a listing of some of the URLs seen on the first day back further below.  Heavy distribution of TrickBot has also been seen in recent campaigns as a secondary infection and may be a money grab to fund their holidays.

Figure 4: Example Emotet delivery email

As with past campaigns, we have also seen an uptick in the use of shipping company themed emails to coincide with the holiday season, a recurring theme for the actors around this time of year. One change to the email templates that appears to be a new lure is an “Open Enrollment 2020” theme to entice users who have not yet decided on their insurance program for the upcoming calendar year.

The Emotet actors are masters at creating email templates that exploit a user’s emotional response, and this is a prime example.

Cofense’s research teams – Cofense Labs, Cofense Intelligence and the Cofense Phishing Defense Center – actively monitor the Emotet botnet to identify phishing threats that may impact customers and to provide security operations with the latest campaign data.

 

HOW COFENSE CAN HELP

100% of malware-bearing phishing threats analyzed by the Cofense Phishing Defense Center are reported by end users and bypassed technical controls that were in place to protect them.

Cofense PhishMe offers a simulation template, “Order Confirmation – Emotet/Geodo,” to educate users on the phishing tactic described in this blog. Condition users to be resilient to evolving phishing attacks with Cofense PhishMe and remove the blind spot with Cofense Reporter.

Easily consume phishing-specific threat intelligence to proactively defend your organization against evolving threats with Cofense Intelligence. Cofense Intelligence customers received further information about this threat in Active Threat Report (ATR) 34580.

Quickly turn user reported emails into actionable intelligence with Cofense Triage and reduce exposure time by rapidly quarantining threats with Cofense Vision.

Thanks to our unique perspective, no one knows more about REAL phishing threats than Cofense. To understand them better, read the 2019 Phishing Threat & Malware Review.

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hXXp://abbasghanbari[.]com/cgi-bin/m2gx-j9l-2674/

hXXp://abis[.]abis-dom[.]ru/wp-content/multifunctional-zone/external-portal/XKnI9c95VXtO-2koeL1odjG8e45/

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hXXp://aijiuli[.]com/wp-content/common-3644746801311-F61eGi6VrRfSERpV/guarded-722116w-9jx99j5uyog/2b51q65tivz3f97-3vw70xy142675/

hXXp://alfaem[.]by/wp-includes/wcevu12a6j/ui13miem-1842496-647941-b1maguvyl7-0wm1/

hXXp://allgamers[.]ir/wp-content/6270900376591-TrHEgUBtm-sector/verified-portal/3rw-x42z0/

hXXp://aminulnakla[.]com/test/5mpub-u9jdh-1356/

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hXXp://anantasquare[.]com/wp-content/Documentation/1yzenuu55v/zdx0oqd5mp-79785-92241-lqk84aode-i65yma2m1/

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hXXps://timestampindia[.]com/citech/Document/

hXXps://twincitiesfrugalmom[.]com/wp-admin/eTrac/9porgmi/ul99a0-5568735694-75056-vt6wk395a-yymz6f/

hXXps://www[.]jadegardenmm[.]com/engl/docs/h85me2-45331562-6525577-0c62dwu3hl-mk47l/

hXXps://www[.]u4web[.]com/bnkddo/open_disk/guarded_kzfciuyy_v4gqdp/1dOq8z5_ILk0gJmw/

All third-party trademarks referenced by Cofense whether in logo form, name form or product form, or otherwise, remain the property of their respective holders, and use of these trademarks in no way indicates any relationship between Cofense and the holders of the trademarks. Any observations contained in this blog regarding circumvention of end point protections are based on observations at a point in time based on a specific set of system configurations. Subsequent updates or different configurations may be effective at stopping these or similar threats.

Raccoon Stealer Found Rummaging Past Symantec and Microsoft Gateways

By Max Gannon and Alan Rainer, Cofense IntelligenceTM

Threat actors continue to exploit legitimate services to trick users, as seen in the latest campaign using Raccoon Stealer malware, aimed at a financial organization and delivered by a Dropbox-hosted .IMG file. A rather unsophisticated malware, Raccoon Stealer came to light around April 2019, bypassing Symantec Email Security and Microsoft EOP gateways. The malware is sold on underground forums in both Russian and English, features an easy-to-use interface, around-the-clock customer support, and highly active development. Users of the malware can distribute it in any way they deem fit. In this campaign, the actors chose to host the malicious .IMG file on a Dropbox share, which upon execution, drops Raccoon Stealer onto the victim machine.

The email used in this campaign was delivered to the inbox of an employee of a financial institution. Figure 1 shows the email signature and originator address which probably belong to a compromised user. Using the familiar theme of a wire transfer—closely akin to those often seen in Business Email Compromise (BEC) scams—the threat actors look to trick users into opening the Dropbox URL and downloading the malicious file.

Educating users on spotting these types of scams and carefully scrutinizing emails that originate outside the organization are great ways to thwart this threat. Cofense IntelligenceTM Indicators of Compromise (IOCs) provided via our feed and noted in the appendix below can be used to fortify network defense and endpoint protection solutions.

Technical Findings

In the past, CofenseTM has seen Raccoon Stealer delivered by direct attachments and via RTF documents leveraging CVE-2017-8570 that targeted sectors such as utilities. In this most recent campaign, a potentially compromised email account was used to send the email shown in Figure 1, which managed to make its way past Symantec Email Security and Microsoft EOP gateways without the URL being removed or tampered with to the extent that it would prevent victims from clicking on it and downloading the payload.

Figure 1: Email delivering Dropbox URL

Raccoon Stealer is a relatively new malware that first appeared on the market around April 2019. Due to Raccoon Stealer’s ease of use and range of capabilities that allow for quick monetization of infected users, it is becoming increasingly popular. Although not particularly advanced or subtle with its network activity and processes, the malware can quickly gather and exfiltrate data as well as download additional payloads.

Initial contact with the command and control center (C2) is made when the malware does an HTTP POST that includes the “bot ID” and “configuration ID”. The C2 location responds with a JSON object explicitly including C2 data and payload locations for libraries and additional files, as shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2: Configuration Data From C2

The payload URLs currently deliver a set of DLLs, as specified by the “attachment url” and “libraries” parameters, but future development could easily allow threat actors to use Racoon Stealer as a loader for other malware to generate additional income.

The use of several distinct delivery methods in a relatively short time, including via the Fallout Exploit Kit, may indicate increased usage by numerous threat actors as predicted in prior Cofense research. Given the variety of delivery options, Racoon Stealer could be a problem for organizations that focus too much on one infection vector.

Table 1: Indicators of Compromise

Description

Indicator

Dropbox URL

hXXp://www[.]dropbox[.]com/s/g6pz8dm4051rs0o/SCAN%20DOC[.]IMG?dl=1

Raccoon Stealer C2 Locations

34[.]89[.]185[.]248

hXXp://34[.]89[.]185[.]248/file_handler/file[.]php hXXp://34[.]89[.]185[.]248/gate/libs[.]zip hXXp://34[.]89[.]185[.]248/gate/log[.]php hXXp://34[.]89[.]185[.]248/gate/sqlite3[.]dll

Raccoon Stealer Hashes

SCAN DOC.exe             f7bcb18e5814db9fd51d0ab05f2d7ee9

SCAN DOC.IMG            0c8158e2a4267eea51e12b6890e68da8

HOW COFENSE CAN HELP

Cofense PhishMeTM Offers a simulation template, “Dropbox Wire Transfer – Raccoon Stealer,” to educate users on the phishing tactic described in today’s blog.

Cofense IntelligenceTM: ATR IDs 32407, 31881, 31977

Cofense TriageTM: PM_Intel_Raccoon_31881, PM_Intel_Raccoon_31977

100% of malware-bearing phishing threats analyzed by the Cofense Phishing Defense CenterTM were reported by end users. 0% were stopped by technology. Condition users to be resilient to evolving phishing attacks with Cofense PhishMeTM and remove the blind spot with Cofense ReporterTM.

Quickly turn user reported emails into actionable intelligence with Cofense TriageTM. Reduce exposure time by rapidly quarantining threats with Cofense VisionTM.

Easily consume phishing-specific threat intelligence to proactively defend your organization against evolving threats with Cofense Intelligence TM.

Thanks to our unique perspective, no one knows more about REAL phishing threats than Cofense. To understand them better, read the 2019 Phishing Threat & Malware Review.

 

All third-party trademarks referenced by Cofense whether in logo form, name form or product form, or otherwise, remain the property of their respective holders, and use of these trademarks in no way indicates any relationship between Cofense and the holders of the trademarks. Any observations contained in this blog regarding circumvention of end point protections are based on observations at a point in time based on a specific set of system configurations. Subsequent updates or different configurations may be effective at stopping these or similar threats.

Threat Actors Use Bogus Payment HTML File to Scoot Past Proofpoint Gateway

By Tej Tulachan

The Cofense Phishing Defense CenterTM (PDC) has prevented a phishing attack that attempts to steal users’ Office365 credentials by luring them with a fake payment order attachment. Hiding a malicious re-direct within a html file, threat actors bypassed the Proofpoint secure email gateway to try and steal users’ credentials.

Here’s how it works:

At first glance, the email appears to be a genuine communication originating from the accounts team of a relatively well-known company. The message body informs the recipient there is a payment order that requires processing. The message simply says, “Please find attached copies of our P.O#9000, dated 05/11/2019,” with the attachment to the email as a html file labelled “P.O#9000.” The email doesn’t specifically ask the user to open the attachment, however it does instruct the user to acknowledge receipt of the email. Any vigilant accountant would be inclined to check the contents of the bill as part of their workflow or processing procedures.

Malicious Attachment

If we take a deeper look into the source code of the html file, we can see that it only contains three lines of html code. The code takes advantage of the http-equiv attribute, used to trigger a page refresh of the user’s web browser and then load new content, which in this case is a URL to a phishing page. This happens almost instantly when the user opens the attachment.

Fig 2: Malicious URL

Phishing Page

Once the attachment is opened the user is redirected to the phishing page as seen below in fig.3. The malicious page attempts to disguise itself as a genuine Microsoft Online Excel document, which most users would expect to see if they are editing documents on SharePoint. In the background we can see a blurred-out Excel spreadsheet with an authentication box obscuring the file contents. The user’s email address is auto populated in the dialog box, which asks the user to authenticate with his or her password.

Fig 3: Phishing Page

75% of threats reported to the Cofense Phishing Defense Center are credential phish. Protect the keys to your kingdom—condition end users to be resilient to credential harvesting attacks with Cofense PhishMeTM.

Over 91% of credential harvesting attacks bypassed secure email gateways. Remove the blind spot—get visibility of attacks with Cofense ReporterTM.

Quickly turn user-reported emails into actionable intelligence with Cofense TriageTM. Reduce exposure time by rapidly quarantining threats with Cofense VisionTM.

Attackers do their research. Every SaaS platform you use is an opportunity for attackers to exploit it. Understand what SaaS applications are configured for your domains—do YOUR research with Cofense CloudSeekerTM.

Thanks to our unique perspective, no one knows more about the REAL phishing threats than CofenseTM. To understand them better, read the 2019 Phishing Threat & Malware Review.

 

All third-party trademarks referenced by Cofense whether in logo form, name form or product form, or otherwise, remain the property of their respective holders, and use of these trademarks in no way indicates any relationship between Cofense and the holders of the trademarks. Any observations contained in this blog regarding circumvention of end point protections are based on observations at a point in time based on a specific set of system configurations. Subsequent updates or different configurations may be effective at stopping these or similar threats.

New Credential Phish Targets Employees with Salary Increase Scam

By Milo Salvia, Cofense Phishing Defense CenterTM

The Cofense Phishing Defense Center (PDC) has observed a new phishing campaign that aims to harvest Office365 (O365) credentials by preying on employees who are expecting salary increases.

The threat actors use a basic spoofing technique to trick employees into thinking that their company’s HR department has shared a salary increase spread sheet. Here’s how it works:

Email Body

Figure 1: Email Body

The threat actor attempts to make the email appear to come from the target company by manipulating the “from” field in the headers. In particular, the threat actor changes the part of the from field that dictates the “nickname” displayed in the mail client to make it appear as if it originated within the company.

The email body is simple: recipients see the company name in bold at the top of the page. Greeted by only their first names, they are informed that “As already announced, The Years Wage increase will start in November 2019 and will be paid out for the first time in December, with recalculation as of November.” Recipients are then presented with what appears to be a hosted Excel document called “salary-increase-sheet-November-2019.xls.”

It is not uncommon, of course, for companies to increase salaries throughout the year. As a result, it wouldn’t be uncommon for an email like this to appear in an employee’s mailbox. Human curiosity compels users to click the embedded link.

The idea is to make recipients believe they are being linked to a document hosted on SharePoint. However, they are being linked to an external website hosted on hxxps://salary365[.]web[.]app/#/auth-pass-form/. One can assume from the context of this malicious URL that it was specifically chosen and hosted for this phishing attempt.

Figure 2: Phishing Pages

Once users click on the link, they are presented with a common imitation of the Microsoft Office365 login page. The recipient email address is appended to the end of the URL that automatically populates the email box within the form, leaving just the password field blank to be submitted by the recipient. This adds a sense of legitimacy to the campaign, allowing the recipient to believe this comes from their own company.

HOW COFENSE CAN HELP

Cofense Resources

Cofense PhishMeTM offers a simulation template, “Salary Increase,” to educate users on the phishing tactic described in today’s blog.

Cofense IntelligenceTM: ATR ID 31510

Cofense TriageTM: YARA rule PM_Intel_CredPhish_31510

75% of threats reported to the Cofense Phishing Defense Center are credential phish. Protect the keys to your kingdom—condition end users to be resilient to credential harvesting attacks with Cofense PhishMeTM.

Over 91% of credential harvesting attacks bypassed secure email gateways. Remove the blind spot—get visibility of attacks with Cofense ReporterTM. Quickly turn user-reported emails into actionable intelligence with Cofense TriageTM. Reduce exposure time by rapidly quarantining threats with Cofense VisionTM.

Attackers do their research. Every SaaS platform you use is an opportunity for attackers to exploit it. Understand what SaaS applications are configured for your domains—do YOUR research with Cofense CloudSeekerTM.

Thanks to our unique perspective, no one knows more about the REAL phishing threats than CofenseTM. To understand them better, read the 2019 Phishing Threat & Malware Review.

 

All third-party trademarks referenced by Cofense whether in logo form, name form or product form, or otherwise, remain the property of their respective holders, and use of these trademarks in no way indicates any relationship between Cofense and the holders of the trademarks. Any observations contained in this blog regarding circumvention of end point protections are based on observations at a point in time based on a specific set of system configurations. Subsequent updates or different configurations may be effective at stopping these or similar threats.

Are URL Scanning Services Accurate for Phishing Analysis?

By Chris Hall, Professional Services

There are plenty of websites offering URL scanning for malicious links. Their tools are a quick and easy way to analyze a URL without visiting the site in a sandboxed environment. Widely used, these tools are accurate to a point.

But in today’s phishing landscape, where attacks are increasingly sophisticated, such tools are becoming less and less reliable. We in the Cofense Phishing Defense CenterTM (PDC) believe they are ineffective against more advanced phishing websites.

Phishing Sites Are Using Redirect Methods to Avoid Detection

Let start with this example:

An attacker can easily set up a new domain and host a phishing site with a legit SSL certificate from most established certificate authorities for free. The attacker then can configure the server or webpage to redirect all connections that are not from the organization’s IP to an external safe site such as google.com.

If a security analyst then submits the URL to a third-party lookup tool, for example VirusTotal, the tool will only detect the site google.com and not the actual phishing site. At this point, the analyst can submit the URL to another URL scanning tool, but the results will all come back the same.

In the Cofense PDC, we are seeing an increase of phishing sites that are using redirect methods to avoid detection from URL scanners and unaware security analysts.

Here is another example with browser detection phishing websites:

This phishing link below redirected users depending on which browser they used.  If users use Firefox as their default browser, they will get the actual payload, while a Chrome default browser will get a redirect to MSN.

Figure 1: Original Phishing Email

When recipients click the ‘Open Notification’ link in the email message above, they are directed to the website below.

URL: hxxp://web-mobile-mail.inboxinboxqjua[.]host/midspaces/pseudo-canadian.html?minor=nailer-[recipient’s Email Address]

When someone clicks the URL, the experience can vary depending on the default browser, Firefox vs. Chrome.

The real phish site using Firefox:

Figure 2: Actual Phishing Site

Using Chrome:

Figure 3: Redirected Site

Regardless of the user’s geolocation, the URL redirect will go to the UK page. URL: https://www.msn.com/en-gb/news/uknews

Now let’s put the same URL in a popular URL scanner and see the results:

Figure 4: Virus Total Results of the Reported URL

The search results show that one of the vendors has detected the phishing site as malware. However, this is not the case.  Let’s look at the Details tab.

Figure 5: VirusTotal Details of the Reported URL

In the results it states that the final URL is to msn.com. We still do not know what the actual phishing site looks like, what the site is doing, or even if the phishing site is active at all.

There’s a Better Way to Check for Malicious Links

Organizations must ask if these URL scanners are providing enough information to analysts so they can complete their investigations.  Is the scanner testing the suspicious link with multiple user agents or querying the site with different source IP addresses?  While the URL scanning services are useful, they lack the basic dynamic analysis that most analysts will perform on a malicious website.

What if I told you that it is quick, easy, and more accurate by far to analyze URL based phishing attacks manually, using various tools such as User-agent switcher or with a VPN and proxy servers while in a dedicated virtual machine? Remember that if a phishing email bypassed those same scanners to reach your users’ inboxes, it’s an undiscovered phishing attack and will require human analysis.

To better equip your analysts, we came up with a list that your security team can use to detect these types of attacks.

  1. Create an isolated proxy server that can reach out to the phishing site without restrictions.

– If your company has locations in different countries, use additional proxy servers in those countries or use proxy services like Tor or a third-party VPN service.

– Acquiring a VPN service with multiple locations is another option.

– Create a “dirty” network to browse malicious sites that can also be used to analyze malware samples.

 

  1. Create a VM for URL analysis.

– This VM should be isolated from the organization’s network.

– VMs such as Remnux will have tools built-in to assist in URL and file analysis.

 

  1. Use Firefox for visiting the site

– Based on the vast amounts of customization, Firefox may be the best browser suited to URL analysis

– Add-ons such as User-agent switcher, FoxyProxy, and HTTP Header Live are essential.

– You can also use the browser’s developer tools to track requests, detect redirects, and alter elements on the page.

URL scanning services are useful to a point. These tools will alert you to some suspicious URLs, but often lack the details need for escalations and blocking the threat. More often than not, the tools will be a point of failure for your organization’s security due to the high amount of risk they introduce. So take a couple of minutes to look at that suspicious URL in a safe environment and see what it really does. It may save you lots of money and time cleaning up an incident.

 

HOW COFENSE SOLUTIONS CAN HELP

Easily consume phishing-specific threat intelligence to proactively defend your organization against evolving threats with Cofense IntelligenceTM

90% of phishing threats observed by the Cofense Phishing Defense Center bypassed secure email gateways. Condition users to be resilient to evolving phishing attacks with Cofense PhishMeTM and remove the blind spot with Cofense ReporterTM.

Quickly turn user reported emails into actionable intelligence with Cofense TriageTM. Reduce exposure time by rapidly quarantining threats with Cofense VisionTM.

Thanks to our unique perspective, no one knows more about REAL phishing threats than Cofense. To understand them better, read the 2019 Phishing Threat & Malware Review.

 

All third-party trademarks referenced by Cofense whether in logo form, name form or product form, or otherwise, remain the property of their respective holders, and use of these trademarks in no way indicates any relationship between Cofense and the holders of the trademarks. Any observations contained in this blog regarding circumvention of end point protections are based on observations at a point in time based on a specific set of system configurations. Subsequent updates or different configurations may be effective at stopping these or similar threats.

New Credential Phish Masks the Scam Page URL to Thwart Vigilant Users

By Milo Salvia, CofenseTM Phishing Defense CenterTM

This blog has been updated since its first appearance on October 17, 2019 to include information related to the threat origin and bypassed email gateways.

The Cofense Phishing Defense Center (PDC) has observed a phishing campaign that aims to harvest credentials from Stripe, the online payment facilitator handling billions of dollars annually, making it an attractive target for threat actors seeking to use compromised accounts to gain access to payment card information and defraud consumers. The phish prevents email recipients from seeing the destination of an embedded link when they try to hover over the URL. Instead, what they see is a bogus account message. Here’s how the campaign works.

Figure 1: Email Headers

The phishing email originates from a compromised press email account with privileged access to MailChimp. The threat actor used the MailChimp app to launch a “marketing campaign” comprised of phishing emails. Because the emails came from a legitimate marketing platform, they passed basic email security checks like DKIM and SPF. As we can see from the headers in figure 1, the email passed both the DKIM authentication check and SPF.

Figure 2: URL

The threat actor was able to obfuscate the URLs contained in the email by using MailChimp’s redirect services. This method hides the true destination and replaces it with a list manage URL. The threat actor also gains the ability to track whether a link has been clicked by a recipient.

Email Body

The email pretends to be a notification from “Stripe Support,” informing the account administrator that “Details associated with account are invalid.” The administrator needs to take immediate action, otherwise the account will be placed on hold. This is cause for panic among businesses that rely solely on online transactions and payments. Fear and urgency are the most common emotions threat actors play on, spurring otherwise rational people to make irrational decisions.

The email body contains a button with an embedded hyperlink: “Review your details.” When clicked, the recipient is redirected to a phishing page. Usually one can check the destination of the hyperlink by hovering over it with the mouse curser. The true destination of this hyperlink is obscured by adding a simple title to HTML’s <a> tag, which shows the recipient the title “Review your details” when the recipient hovers over the button instead of the URL. Potentially this is a tactic to mask the true destination from a vigilant recipient.

 Figure 3: Email Body

Figure 4: Malicious Button

The phishing page is an imitation of the Stripe customer login page. In fact, it consists of three separate pages. The first one aims to harvest the admin’s email address and password, while the second page asks for the bank account number and phone number associated with the account. Lastly, the recipient is redirected back to the account login page which displays an error massager, “Wrong Password, Enter Again.” This leads the recipient to believe an incorrect password has been entered and redirects back to the legitimate site, so the recipient doesn’t suspect foul play.

Figure 5: Phishing Pages

HOW COFENSE CAN HELP

Cofense Resources

Cofense PhishMeTM offers a simulation template, “Stripe Account Notification,” to educate users on the campaign described in today’s blog.

75% of threats reported to the Cofense Phishing Defense CenterTM are credential phish. Protect the keys to your kingdom—condition end users to be resilient to credential harvesting attacks with Cofense PhishMe.

Over 91% of credential harvesting attacks bypassed secure email gateways. Remove the blind spot—get visibility of attacks with Cofense ReporterTM.

Quickly turn user-reported emails into actionable intelligence with Cofense TriageTM. Reduce exposure time by rapidly quarantining threats with Cofense VisionTM.

Attackers do their research. Every SaaS platform you use is an opportunity for attackers to exploit it. Understand what SaaS applications are configured for your domains—do YOUR research with Cofense CloudSeekerTM.

Thanks to our unique perspective, no one knows more about the REAL phishing threats than Cofense. To understand them better, read the 2019 Phishing Threat & Malware Review.

 

All third-party trademarks referenced by Cofense whether in logo form, name form or product form, or otherwise, remain the property of their respective holders, and use of these trademarks in no way indicates any relationship between Cofense and the holders of the trademarks. Any observations contained in this blog regarding circumvention of end point protections are based on observations at a point in time based on a specific set of system configurations. Subsequent updates or different configurations may be effective at stopping these or similar threats.

New Phishing Sextortion Campaign Using Alternative Crypto Currencies to Evade Detection

By Hunter Johnson, Cofense Professional Services 

Cofense has observed threat actors employing a modified version of a sextortion scam using alternative crypto currencies to bitcoin.

Typical sextortion scams claim to have installed malware on recipients’ systems and recorded their browsing history of adult websites and webcam footage. Ransom is demanded in bitcoin, upon threat of releasing damaging information to family, friends, and co-workers. Because threat actors often get recipients’ emails from password breach lists, they sometimes include passwords to lend authenticity.

Early sextortion scams started with a plain text extortion email threating the recipient and asking for payment. As enterprises began writing detection rules to block those emails, threat actors modified the text by replacing it with an image, which prevented key words from being identified by Secure Email Gateways (SEGs). The bitcoin address was left as a plain text string in the email, so it could be easily copied. As enterprises began checking for bitcoin addresses, threat actors removed text and images and switched to attaching PDF documents containing the threats. Most recently, threat actors began encrypting PDF attachments and including the password in the email body to foil any further SEG detection rules.

This latest sextortion version is using a Litecoin wallet address instead of bitcoin to evade detection. Previous iterations showed a gradual shift away from identifiable patterns and to alternative crypto currencies, in an attempt to foil SEG bitcoin-detection rules. The current emails appear to be crafted to contain very few searchable word patterns. While we could publish the contents of those emails, let’s just say the emails contained adult language admonishing the recipient to be more careful about their browsing and webcam habits.

As this latest twist shows, threat actors can switch to the next crypto currency and attempt to iterate through all the scam’s previous versions. While there are thousands of crypto currencies, only a dozen or so are easily attainable from large exchanges. For the scam to work, the recipient needs an easy way to acquire the requested payment method.

Avoiding this scam is simple. Your users can safely ignore the emails—if threat actors actually had such access and data, they would include stronger proof. Also educate users about sites such as haveibeenpwned.com, so they can know if their email address is likely to become a target.

Cofense will also be publishing a rule to detect attacks we’ve seen so far using this new method.

HOW COFENSE CAN HELP

Cofense Resources

Cofense PhishMeTM offers a phishing simulation template, “Fear Driven Phishing Scams Involving Embarrassing Situations,” to educate users on sextortion and similar scams.

Cofense Labs has published a database of 300 million compromised email accounts for use in sextortion campaigns. Find out if your organization’s accounts are at risk.

Reports of sextortion and other ransom scams to the Cofense Phishing Defense CenterTM are increasing. Condition users to be resilient to evolving phishing attacks with Cofense PhishMe and remove the blind spot with Cofense ReporterTM.

Quickly turn user reported emails into actionable intelligence with Cofense TriageTM. Reduce exposure time by rapidly quarantining threats with Cofense VisionTM.

Attackers do their research. Every SaaS platform you use is an opportunity for attackers to exploit it. Understand what SaaS applications are configured for your domains – do YOUR research with Cofense CloudSeeker TM.

Thanks to our unique perspective, no one knows more about REAL phishing threats than Cofense. To understand them better, read the 2019 Phishing Threat & Malware Review.

 

All third-party trademarks referenced by Cofense whether in logo form, name form or product form, or otherwise, remain the property of their respective holders, and use of these trademarks in no way indicates any relationship between Cofense and the holders of the trademarks. Any observations contained in this blog regarding circumvention of end point protections are based on observations at a point in time based on a specific set of system configurations. Subsequent updates or different configurations may be effective at stopping these or similar threats.

Threat Actors Use Percentage-Based URL Encoding to Bypass Email Gateways

Last week, the Cofense Phishing Defense CenterTM observed phishing threat actors using low-level trickery to avoid detection, by utilizing basic percentage-based URL encoding. This takes advantage of Google’s nifty ability to decode the encoded URL data on the fly. The easiest way to trick a secure email gateway (SEG) is hiding the true destination of the payload.

Here’s how it works:

Figure 1: email body

The phishing email is simple and originates from a compromised email account of a relatively well-known American brand, informing recipients that they have a new invoice awaiting payment. The email body has an embedded hyperlink button, highlighted in yellow, where users can click to view the invoice.

As we can see in Figure 1 above, the true destination of the hyperlink is not immediately obvious to the untrained eye and unfortunately the same is true for many perimeter security devices. We note that the URL’s top-level domain is google.lv which is the home page for Google Latvia.

Figure 2: URL Encoding

If we take a deeper look into the embedded hyperlink, we see that Google is being used to redirect the recipient to a secondary malicious URL. The first part of the URL is benign “hxxps://google.lv/url?q=”, which tells the web browser to use Google to query a specific URL or string.

The second part of the string, highlighted in red (Figure 2), is the payload which is a string that is encoded with basic URL encoding. This is sometimes referred to as percent encoding, which replaces ASCII characters with a “%” followed by two hexadecimal digits. Most web browsers recognize URLs that contain hexadecimal character representations and will automatically decode them back into ASCII on the fly without any user interaction. When users click on the hyperlink within the email, they are redirected through their browsers to Google to query the encoded string. This is recognized as a URL to redirect the user to the final destination of the malicious payload.

This is enough to fool basic URL and domain checks by perimeter devices, a simple yet effective way for threat actors to ensure delivery of malicious payloads.

Figure 3: Phishing Page 

The phishing page itself is a simple imitation of the Office 365 login portal and aims to steal corporate users’ credentials. With businesses’ growing reliance on Office365, it’s fast becoming a favorite target amongst phishing threat actors.

Network IOCs
hxxps://gdank[.]com/office[.]o/microsoft/office/ 107[.]180[.]27[.]240

HOW COFENSE CAN HELP

Cofense Resources

Cofense PhishMeTM offers a simulation template, “New Invoice,” to educate employees on the phishing tactic described in today’s blog.

75% of threats reported to the Cofense Phishing Defense Center are credential phish. Protect the keys to your kingdom—condition end users to be resilient to credential harvesting attacks with Cofense PhishMe.

Over 91% of credential harvesting attacks bypassed secure email gateways. Remove the blind spot—get visibility of attacks with Cofense ReporterTM.

Quickly turn user-reported emails into actionable intelligence with Cofense TriageTM. Reduce exposure time by rapidly quarantining threats with Cofense VisionTM.

Attackers do their research. Every SaaS platform you use is an opportunity for attackers to exploit it. Understand what SaaS applications are configured for your domains—do YOUR research with Cofense CloudSeekerTM.

Thanks to our unique perspective, no one knows more about the REAL phishing threats than Cofense. To understand them better, read the 2019 Phishing Threat & Malware Review.

 

All third-party trademarks referenced by Cofense whether in logo form, name form or product form, or otherwise, remain the property of their respective holders, and use of these trademarks in no way indicates any relationship between Cofense and the holders of the trademarks. Any observations contained in this blog regarding circumvention of end point protections are based on observations at a point in time based on a specific set of system configurations. Subsequent updates or different configurations may be effective at stopping these or similar threats.